Books/Book chapters

Cleal, C. J., Thomas, B. A., Batten, D. J. & Collinson, M. E. 2001.  Mesozoic and Tertiary palaeobotany of Great Britain.  Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough (Geological Conservation Review Series, No. 22), xviii + 335 pp.

Lazarus, M. H. & Pardoe, H. S. (2003).  Catalogue of Botanical Prints and Drawings held by the National Museums & Galleries of Wales.  National Museums & Galleries of Wales, Cardiff, 319 pp. 

Schneider, J. W., Elicki, O., Cleal, C. J. & Opluštil, S. 2004.  "Environmental reconstruction and stratigraphy in the Palaeozoic" Workshop in Honour of the 125th Obit of Bernhard von Cotta. "Late Westphalian terrestrial biotas and palaeoenvironments of the Variscan Foreland and adjacent intramontane basins" 2004 Central European Meeting of IGCP 469. October, 9-11, 2004. Dept. of Palaeontology, Institute of Geology. Abstracts.  Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg in Sachsen, 106 pp.

Anderson, J. M., Anderson, H. M. & Cleal, C. J. 2007.  Brief history of the gymnosperms: classification, biodiversity, phytogeography and ecology. National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria (Strelitzia, Vol. 20), x + 279 pp.

Cleal, C. J. & Thomas, B. A. 2009.  Introduction to plant fossils.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 237 pp.
Waters, C. N., Somerville, I. D., Jones, N. S., Cleal, C. J., Collinson, J. D., Waters, R. A., Besly, B. M., Dean, M. T., Stephenson, M. H., Davies, J. R., Freshney, E. C., Jackson, D. I., Mitchell, W. I., Powell, J. H., Barclay, W. J., Browne, M. A. E., Leveridge, B. E., Long, S. L. & Mclean, D. 2011. A revised correlation of Carboniferous rocks in the British Isles. Geological Society, London (Special Report 26), 186 pp.

Bibliography of European Palaeobotany and Palynology

The Section is responsible for publishing the Bibliography of European Palaeobotany and Palynology.  First published in 1992 and subsequently appearing every two years, the Bibliography represents a comprehensive summary of palaeobotanical and palynological activity across Europe.  As well as providing a list of publications and theses in the field, it lists most active specialists, their contact details, their current interests and news items.

Peer-reviewed papers

Wimbledon, W. A., Anderson, S., Cleal, C. J., Cowie, J. W., Erikstad, L., Gonggrijp, G. P., Johansson, C. E., Karis, L. O. & Souminen, V. 2000. Geological world heritage: Geosites - a global comparative site inventory to enable prioritisation for conservation. Memorie Descriptive Carta Geologica d'Italia, 54, 45-60.
McKerrow, W. S., Mac Niocaill, C., Ahlberg, P. E., Clayton, G., Cleal, C. J. & Eagar, R. M. C. 2000.  The Late Palaeozoic relations between Gondwana and Laurasia.  In: Franke, W., Haak, V., Oncken, O. & Tanner, D (eds) (ed.) Quantification and modelling in the Variscan Belt.  Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 179, 9-20.
Cleal, C. J., Thomas, B. A., Bevins, R. E. & Wimbledon, W. A. P. 2001.  Deciding on a new world order.  Earth Heritage, 16, 10-13.
Cleal, C. J. & Thomas, B. A. 2001.  The conservation of ancient tropical rain forests.  In: Rushton, B. S., Hackney, P. & Tyrie, C. R (eds) Biological collections & biodiversity.  Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley, West Yorkshire, pp. 9-26.
Pardoe, H.S. 2001.  The representation of taxa in surface pollen spectra on alpine and sub-alpine glacier forelands in southern Norway.  Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 117, 63-78.
Thomas, B. A. & Cleal, C. J. 2001.  A new early Westphalian D flora from Aberdulais Falls, South Wales.  Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 112, 373-377.
Cleal, C. J. & Wang Ziqiang. 2002.  A new and diverse plant fossil assemblage from the upper Westphalian Benxi Formation, Shanxi, China, and its palaeofloristic significance.  Geological Magazine, 139, 107-130.
Shute, C. H. & Cleal, C. J. 2002.  Ecology and growth habit of Laveineopteris: a gymnosperm from the Late Carboniferous tropical rain forests.  Palaeontology, 45, 943-972.
Cleal, C. J. 2002.  Two new late Carboniferous Neuropteris species (Medullosales) from Saarland, Germany and their palaeogeographical significance.  Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 139, 193-205.
Šimůnek, Z. & Cleal, C. J. 2002.  The taxonomy of middle Westphalian medullosalean foliage known as 'Alethopteris grandinioides early form' from the Central and Western Bohemian Basin.  Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey, 77, 61-64.
Evans, B. G., Cleal, C. J., Thomas, B. A. & Wimbledon, W. A. P. 2003.  The Westphalian succession of the Glyn-neath area, South Wales: an internationally important geological resource.  Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 114, 291-305.
Pšenicka, J., Bek, J., Zodrow, E. L., Cleal, C. J., & Hemsley, A. 2003.  A new late Westphalian fossil marattialean fern from Nova Scotia.  Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 142, 199-212.
Cleal, C. J., Dimitrova, T. Kh. & Zodrow, E. L. 2003.  Macrofloral and palynological criteria for recognising the Westphalian - Stephanian boundary.  Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 39, 181-208.
Cleal, C. J., Thomas, B. A., Bevins, R. & Wimbledon, W. A. 2003.  The Global Geosites project in Great Britain.  Geoscientist, 13, 16-17.
Cleal, C. J. & Rees, P. M. 2003.  The Middle Jurassic flora from Stonesfield, Oxfordshire, UK.  Palaeontology, 46, 739-801.
Cleal, C. J. & Shute, C. H. 2003.  Systematics of the Late Carboniferous medullosalean pteridosperm Laveineopteris and its associated Cyclopteris leaves.  Palaeontology, 46, 353-411.
Pardoe, H. & Lazarus, M. 2003.  The botanical paintings of Dr Harold Drinkwater.  Botanical Society of the British Isles, Welsh Bulletin, 71. 21 -25.
Cleal, C. J., Tenchov, Y. & Zodrow, E. L. 2004.  Review of the late Westphalian early Stephanian macrofloras of the Dobrudzha Coalfield, Bulgaria.  Geologica Balcanica, 34, 11-20.
Cleal, C. J. 2004.  IGCP 469 Late Westphalian terrestrial biotas and environments of the Variscan Foreland and adjacent intramontane basins.  Geologica Balcanica, 34, 3-10.
Cleal, C. J. & Thomas, B. A. 2004.  Late Carboniferous palaeobotany of the upper Bideford Formation, north Devon: a coastal setting for a Coal Measures flora.  Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 115, 267-281.
Pardoe, H. & Lazarus, M. 2004.  Three generations of women botanical artists at the National Museum of Wales.  Botanical Society of the British Isles, Welsh Bulletin, 74. 8-10.
Rees, P. M. & Cleal, C. J. 2004.  Lower Jurassic floras from Hope Bay and Botany Bay, Antarctica. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 72, 1-90.
Šimůnek, Z. & Cleal, C. J. 2004.  Small-pinnuled odontopterid medullosaleans from the middle and upper Stephanian of Central Bohemia and Saar-Lorraine.  Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 129, 21-38.
Thomas, B. A., Cleal, C. J. & Barthel, M. 2004.  Palaeobotanical applications of incident-light darkfield microscopy.  Palaeontology, 47, 1641-1645.
Cleal, C. J. & Thomas, B. A. 2005.  Palaeozoic tropical rainforests and their effect on global climates: is the past the key to the present?  Geobiology, 3, 13-31.
Burek, C. V. & Cleal, C. J. 2005. The life and work of Emily Dix (1904-1972). In: Bowden, A. J., Burek, C. V. & Wilding, R (ed.) History of palaeobotany: selected essays.  Geological Society of London, Special Publication, 241, 181-196.
Dimitrova, T. Kh., Cleal, C. J. & Thomas, B. A. 2005.  Palynology of late Westphalian early Stephanian coal-bearing deposits in the eastern South Wales Coalfield.  Geological Magazine, 142, 809-821.
Cleal, C. J. 2005.  The Westphalian macrofloral record from the cratonic central Pennines Basin, UK.  Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 156, 387-410.
Thomas, B. A. & Cleal, C. J. 2005.  Geological conservation in the United Kingdom.  Law, Science and Policy, 2, 269-284.
Cleal, C. J., Lazarus, M. & Townsend, A. 2005.  Illustrations and illustrators during the 'Golden Age' of palaeobotany: 1800-1840. In: Bowden, A. J., Burek, C. V. & Wilding, R (ed.) History of palaeobotany: selected essays. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, 241, 41-61.
Cleal, C. J., Rees, P. M., Zijlstra, G. & Cantrill, D. J. 2006.  A clarification of the type of Nilssoniopteris Nathorst (fossil Gymnospermophyta, Bennettitales).  Taxon, 55, 219-222.
Pardoe, H.S. 2006.  Surface pollen deposition on glacier forelands in southern Norway I: local patterns of representation and source area at Storbreen, Jotunheimen.  The Holocene, 16, 1149-1161.
Zodrow, E. L., Cleal, C. J. & Tenchov, Y. G. 2006.  The Pennsylvanian-aged Linopteris obliqua tree from the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia.  Canadian Palaeobiology, 13, 5-8.
Zodrow, E. L., Šimůnek, Z., Cleal, C. J., Bek, J. & Pšenička, J. 2006.  Taxonomic revision of the Palaeozoic marattialean fern AcithecaReview of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 138, 239-280.
Zodrow, E. L., Tenchov, E. L. & Cleal, C. J. 2007.  The arborescent Linopteris obliqua plant (Medullosales, Pennsylvanian).  Bulletin of Geosciences, 82, 51-84.
Cleal, C. J., Tenchov, Y. G., Dimitrova, T. Kh., Thomas, B. A. & Zodrow, E. L. 2007.  Late Westphalian-Early Stephanian vegetational changes across the Variscan Foreland.  In: Wong, Th. E (ed.) Proceedings of the XVth International Congress on Carboniferous and Permian Stratigraphy. Utrecht, the Netherlands, 10-16 August 2003.  Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, pp. 367-377.
Cleal, C. J. 2007.  Review of Tropical forests & global atmospheric change, Oxford University Press, Oxford, by Yadvinder Malhi & Oliver Phillips (eds).  The Quarterly Review of Biology, 82, 169-170.
Cleal, C. J., Zodrow, E. L. & Šimůnek, Z. 2007.  Leaf cuticles from the Pennsylvanian-aged medullosalean Odontopteris cantabrica Wagner.  Acta Palaeobotanica, 47, 327-337.
Cleal, C. J. 2007. Vorwort.  In: Schindler, T. & Heidtke, V. H (eds) Kohlsümpfe, Seen und Halbwüsten. Dokumente einer rund 300 Millionen Jahre alten Lebewelt zwischen Saarbrücken und Mainz.  Neustadt an der Weinstraße, pp. i-iv.
Cleal, C. J. 2007.  The Westphalian-Stephanian macrofloral record from the South Wales Coalfield.  Geological Magazine, 144, 465-486.
Cleal, C. J. & Shute, C. H. 2007.  The effect of drying on epidermal cell parameters preserved on plant cuticles.  Acta Palaeobotanica, 47, 315-326.
Hilton, J. & Cleal C. J. 2007.  The relationship between Euramerican and Cathaysian tropical floras in the Late Palaeozoic: palaeobiogeographical and palaeogeographical implications.  Earth-Science Reviews, 85, 85-116.
Opluštil, S. & Cleal, C. J. 2007.  A comparative analysis of some Late Carboniferous basins of Variscan Europe.  Geological Magazine, 144, 417-448.
Dimitrova, T. Kh. & Cleal, C. J. 2007.  Palynological evidence for late Westphalian - early Stephanian vegetation change in the Dobrudzha Coalfield, NE Bulgaria.  Geological Magazine, 144, 513-524.
Fraser, H. E. & Cleal, C. J. 2007.  The contributions of British women to Carboniferous palaeobotany during the first half of the 20th century.  In: Burek, C. V. & Higgs B (ed.) The role of women in the history of geology. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, 281, 51-82.
Cleal, C. J. 2008.  IGCP 469 – Late Variscan terrestrial biotas and palaeoenvironments.  Studia Geologica Polonica, 129, 7-8.
Cleal, C. J. 2008.  Palaeofloristics of Middle Pennsylvanian medullosaleans in Variscan Euramerica.  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 268, 164-180.
Cleal, C. J. 2008.  Westphalian-Stephanian macrofloras of the southern Pennines Basin, UK.  Studia Geologica Polonica, 129, 25-41.
Cleal, C. J. 2008.  Palaeofloristics of Middle Pennsylvanian lyginopteridaleans in Variscan Euramerica.  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 261, 1-14.
Cleal, C. J. 2008.  Macrofloral biostratigraphy of the Ottweiler Group in Saar-Lorraine and its consequences for Stephanian palynostratigraphy and geochronology.  Studia Geologica lPolonica, 129, 9-23.
Cleal, C. J., Fraser, H. E., Lazarus, M. & Dannell, G. 2009.  The forests before the flood: the palaeobotanical contributions of Edmund Tyrell Artis (1789-1847).  Earth Sciences History, 28, 245-275.
Cleal, C. J., Shute, C. H., Hilton, J. & Carter, J. 2009.  A revision of the Pennsylvanian-aged Eremopteris-bearing seed plant.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 170, 666-698.
Pšenièka, J., Bek, J., Cleal, C. J., Wittry, J. & Zodrow, E. L. 2009.  Description of synangia and spores of the holotype of the Carboniferous fern Lobatopteris miltoni, with taxonomic comments.  Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 155, 133-144.
Uhl, D. & Cleal, C. J. 2010.  Late Carboniferous vegetation change in lowland and intramontane basins. International Journal of Coal Geology, 83, 318-328.
Thomas, B. A., Zodrow, E. L. & Cleal, C. J. 2010.  Leafy branches of Bothrodendron punctatum from the Westphalian D (Asturian) of Nova Scotia, Canada.  Atlantic Geology, 46, 1-6.
Cleal, C. J. & Thomas, B. A. 2010.  Botanical nomenclature and plant fossils. Taxon, 59, 261-268.
Cleal, C. J. & Thomas, B. A. 2010.  Proposals to modify the provisions in the Code for naming plant fossils. Taxon, 59, 312-313.
Zodrow, E. L., D'Angelo, J. A., Mastalerz, M., Cleal, C. J. & Keefe, D. 2010.  Phytochemistry of the fossilized-cuticle frond Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Pennsylvanian seed fern, Canada).  International Journal of Coal Geology, 84, 71-82.
Cleal, C. J., Opluštil, S., Thomas, B. A. & Tenchov, Y. 2010.  Late Moscovian terrestrial biotas and palaeoenvironments of Variscan Euramerica.  Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 88, 181-278.
Cleal, C. J., Zodrow, E. L. & Mastalerz, M. 2010.  An association of Alethopteris foliage, Trigonocarpus ovules and Bernaultia-like pollen organs from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Nova Scotia, Canada.  Palaeontographica, Abteilung B, 283, 73-97.
Dimitrova, T. Kh., Zodrow, E. L., Cleal, C. J. & Thomas, B. A. 2010.  Palynological evidence for Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous) vegetation change in the Sydney Coalfield, eastern Canada.  Geological Journal, 45, 388-396.
Tenchov, Y. G. & Cleal, C. J. 2010.  Neuralethopteris foliage (Medullosales) in the Carboniferous of Dobrudzha Coalfield, Bulgaria.  Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 158, 298-307.
Cleal, C. J. 2010. Proposal to conserve the name Eusphenopteris Gothan ex Simson-Scharold against Eusphenopteris Kidst (fossil Lyginopteridales).. Taxon, 59, 653-655.
Cleal, C. J., Opluštil, S., Thomas, B. A. & Tenchov, Y. 2011. Pennsylvanian vegetation and climate in tropical Variscan Euramerica. Episodes, 34, 3-12.
Cascales-Miñana, B. & Cleal, C. J. 2011. Plant fossil record and survival analysis. Lethaia, 45, 71-82.
Šimùnek, Z. & Cleal, C. J. 2011. Imparipinnate neuropteroid foliage (Medullosales) from the middle Westphalian of the West and Central Bohemia Coal Basin, Czech Republic. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 166, 163-201.
Dimitrova, T. Kh., Cleal, C. J. & Thomas, B. A. 2011. Palynological evidence for Pennsylvanian extra-basinal vegetation in Atlantic Canada. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168, 559-569.
King, S. C., Cleal, C. J. & Hilton, J. 2011. Common ground between two British Pennsylvanian wetrland floras: using large, first-hand datasets to assess utility of historical museum collections. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 308, 405-417.
Hilton, J. & Cleal, C. J. 2011. Late Palaeozoic terrestrial habitats and biotas: the effect of changing climates. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168, 545-546.
Cleal, C. J., Thomas, B. A., van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J. H. A. & Zijlstra, G. 2012. Proposal to change the authorship of Calamites, nom. cons (fossil, Sphenopsida) and to delete Calamitis, nom. rej. Taxon, 61, 884-885.
Cleal, C. J., Uhl, D., Cascales-Miñana, B., Thomas, B. A., Bashforth, A. R., King, S. C. & Zodrow, E. L. 2012. Plant biodiversity changes in Carboniferous tropical wetlands. Earth-Science Reviews, 114, 124-155.
Cleal, C. J. & Shute, C. H. 2012.  The systematic and palaeoecological value of foliage anatomy in Late Palaeozoic medullosalean seed-plants.  Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 10.


Cleal, C. J. 2008.  Lost plants.  Geology Today, 24, 51-52.
Cleal, C. J. 2010.  The club mosses of ancient Wales.  Natur Cymru, 37, 44.
Appleton, P., Malpas, J., Thomas, B. A. & Cleal, C. J. 2011.  The Brymbo fossil forest.  Geology Today, 27, 107-113.
 Cleal, C. J. 2012.  Capel Horeb Quarry - the oldest vascular tissue evidence in the world.  Natur Cymru, 42, 43.

Online resources

An account of the Welsh palaeobotanist Emily Dix on the web site of the International Organisation of Palaeobotany (

An account of the English palaeobotanist Edmund Tyrell Artis on the web site of the International Organisation of Palaeobotany (

A contribution to the on-line Encyclopedia of life sciences (published by J. Wiley, London) entitled ‘Tiering on land  trees and forests’ (

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