Return of the Vikings? 8th September
[image: A table is set up in a barn. It holds a light, laptop and various finds. Some are stones, marked with a finds label. Others are in labelled bags. Some bags have been put into boxes to give them extra protection. The boxes are labelled glass, copper alloy,]
The finds hut, where this blog was written. Boxes contain individually bagged finds, boxed by type - pottery, lead, copper alloy, etc. Other bags are still being processed. The large stones are possibly building materials.
[image: Two students sit on upturned crates each with a bowl of water in front of them. They use toothbrushes to clean pieces of animal bone ready for analysis]
Washing animal bone. The students use toothbrushes and soft wooden sticks to carefully remove soil.
[image: Ten seed trays contain varying amounts of cleaned animal bone. A white waterproof label attached to each tray describes exactly where the bone was found]
Animal bone finds drying in the sun. If there was any sun! The trays are labelled according to the 3D location ("context") of the finds
In the past week finds processing started in earnest, as stratified deposits were by then being dug across most of the site. In the first two weeks keeping on top of the objects coming from the site had only been a part time job: listing and packing the individual metal, pottery and glass finds that had been turning up. With the serious digging of stratified deposits, however, animal bone worth keeping for further study, started to emerge in considerable quantity. The midden (spread of dumped rubbish) in the main trench (Trench AG) was also being systematically sampled, producing tubs of soil needing processing.
The animal bone and the soil samples form the two main strands of the finds processing going on site. The animal bone needs washing and drying before it can be bagged up for future study: when it will hopefully give insights into the diet and farming methods of the inhabitants of the site.
The soil samples are processed in a flotation tank. A sample, held in a fine mesh, has water pumped up through it from below while being agitated and broken up by the hands of the operator. The flow of the water carries off light, organic, components (charcoal, grain, seeds and other plant remains), which is collected in a very fine mesh sieve. Meanwhile the bulk of the soil drops through the mesh into the bottom of the tank leaving the coarse residue of the sample in the mesh. This is mostly small fragments of stone but will hopefully also contain small animal and fish bones that would not otherwise get found. Both the material floated off and the coarse residues are then left to dry and bagged up for later sorting.
Return of the Vikings? 5th September
[image: In the trench, a wall of limestone blocks is seen. A change in soil texture and colour in the cut of the trench reveals a cross-section of the early medieval ditch. Labels mark significant finds]
Cross section showing ditch and wall
[image: Four students use mattocks and shovels to remove the topsoil. Trowels will be used once archaeology is reached]
Extending trench AH
[image: A long, narrow trench. A student uses a trowel to define the edge of one of two early-medieval defensive ditches which cross the trench, visible by changes in soil texture and colour. Another student mattocks away excess topsoil from the other ditch]
Ditches in trench AI
[image: Half of a copper alloy penannular brooch. The square terminal is decorated in a dot pattern. The other half would have mirrored this fragment, forming an incomplete circle. A long pin would have hung from the circle to complete the fastening]
Half of a copper alloy penannular brooch. The pin is missing. The other half would have mirrored this section; the break is at the top of the brooch as viewed here.
The teams in our three trenches have made excellent progress. In the main trench (AG), the full width of the stone enclosure wall has been revealed, and today we were able to identify a buried ground surface beneath (pre-dating) the wall, as well as upcast from the cutting of the early medieval ditch. In the north-east of the trench, a gully has been identified which formed one side of a small enclosure within the walls. This appears to have been a drip gully and drainage ditch around a timber building.
We have decided to extend our small square trench (AH) in the light of the human remains found a few days ago. This trench was sited to establish whether further burials existed in this part of the site, and the discovery promises to add significantly to our understanding of this episode of the site’s history. The crouched burial identified so far has only been partially uncovered (top of skull and femur), but it is clear that these articulated bones represent an addition to the small group of five bodies buried outside the defensive wall of the site during the second half of the tenth century.
In our narrow slit trench (AI) on the north-east side of the early medieval enclosure, the team has defined the edges on the inner and outer edges of the two defensive ditches, and a possible prehistoric feature at one end.
One of the more significant finds made so far is the hoop and decorated terminal of a copper-alloy penannular brooch. This is reminiscent of one found in the ninth- century Trewhiddle hoard. The midden deposits within trench AG continue to produce copious quantities of animal bone (important for our understanding of husbandry and diet), as well as ironwork.
Return of the Vikings? 3rd September
Exploring features in the main trench
[image: An excited team gather to view a human bone as it starts to emerge from the soil]
First glimpse of a burial
[image: A thigh bone, several hundred years old, buried in the soil. Other bones are starting to emerge to its left]
The long thigh bone (right)
After two weeks of hard work by all the team to remove ploughsoil, and backfill from previous years’ excavation, the archaeological remains are finally being examined in detail.
Today, one discovery brought the entire site to a halt, bringing everyone to gather around one of the smaller exploratory trenches opened last week. Following clearing rubble from the upper fill of the enclosure ditch, the longbone of a burial was found on the western side of the enclosure ditch. It is hoped that this exciting discovery will provide more information relating to a group of five skeletons previously found immediately to the south during the excavation seasons of 1998 and 1999.
Weather conditions on site are currently excellent for the detection of archaeological features. This is exemplified by the discovery of a several archaeological features within an area previously excavated in 1998 at the east end of the main trench. Some of these features were previously known from the earlier season, but remained unexcavated because of a lack of time.
Elsewhere in the main trench, the team has uncovered more of the enclosure wall defining the western boundary of the site, and have also begun the excavation of a slot through the enclosure ditch adjacent to that wall. Exploratory slots placed through midden deposits at the east end of the trench are finding animal bones in large quantities, which will provide valuable dietary information about the inhabitants of the site.
These tantalising glimpses into the archaeology of the site are getting everyone very excited, and we look forwards to seeing what new discoveries await us during the next two weeks.
Tudur Burke Davies
Return of the Vikings? Friday 31st August
[image: Two archaeologists use trowels to gently uncover archaeology. Assistants remove the waste]
The trowelling begins
[image: Changes in soil colour show two ditches crossing this trench]
Changes in soil colour show two ditches crossing this trench
Today started very pleasantly with sun and light winds, although became overcast by lunchtime, but thankfully still dry. The muddy remains of the deluges of previous days are now largely cleared away from site surfaces and we are down to midden layers across most of the main trench. The trench has now been allotted various sample areas to provide detailed insights into the midden layers, which are getting blacker as we go down through them. The main enclosure ditch where it crosses through this trench has been cross-sectioned, with a grey charcoal-flecked soil filling its upper layer. At the other end of the trench, not far from the spring and pool at the centre of the enclosure, the location of a single, important human burial found deep under the midden in a previous season (2001) is being explored and the backfill of the old trench above it is being removed.
Two smaller trenches are revealing details of the enclosure defences and ditches. One on the western side shows an interesting stepped profile to the ditch, almost as if those digging it were progressively deepening it as it crossed over the limestone scarp. Another long, narrow trench on the north-eastern side of the enclosure was started two days ago to test a possible double-ditch type anomaly which was noticed on the geophysics. This has proved to be correct, with two ditches crossing this trench. Work is now under way to establish their depth and extent, and hopefully to clarify whether one is earlier than the other.
Today is my last day on site as I am only able to supervise for the first half of the four week excavation season. It has been an extremely enjoyable and nostalgic return for me to dig on a favourite site with old friends, having been part of the site team here in the 1996-99 seasons. The weather this time has been less than brilliant, but we have had quite a few nice days amidst the rainy ones, and the forecast is now good. The student team (from Cardiff and Bangor universities) is excellent, at least as good as any we have had in previous seasons. I strongly suspect the most interesting discoveries of this season will now occur in the next two weeks! I will be watching this blog with interest.