Crystal System: Monoclinic
Status of Occurrence: Confirmed Occurrence - 1st UK recording
Distribution: Rare
Chemical Composition: Zinc manganese sulphate hydrate
Chemical Formula: (Zn,Mn)SO4.H2O
Method(s) of Verification: Parys Mountain - XRD (Dr. D. Jenkins at Bangor University).

Chemical Group:

  • Sulphates

Geological Context:

  • Supergene: post-mining oxidation & weathering deposits
  • Supergene: in situ natural oxidation & weathering deposits
Introduction: gunningite is a member of the kieserite group that typically forms fine-grained efflorescence on oxidizing sphalerite.
Occurrence in Wales: recent research into secondary sulphates precipitating on weathered sulphides exposed at Parys Mountain has established the presence of gunningite. This represents the first occurrence of gunningite in the British Isles. Unfortunately the exposure was destroyed, presumably in the ‘cleaning’ of an exposure of the ore vein (Jenkins et al., 2000).

Key Localities:

  • Parys Mountain, Anglesey: sparse, thin, white encrustation on a weathered sphalerite vein (Jenkins et al., 2000).


  1. Jenkins, D. A., Johnson, D. B. & Freeman, C., 2000. Mynydd Parys Cu-Pb-Zn mines: mineralogy, microbiology and acid mine drainage. pp. 161-179. In: Environmental Mineralogy: Microbial Interactions, Anthropogenic Influences, Contaminated Land and Waste Management (Cotter-Howells, J. D., Campbell, L. S., Valasami-Jones, E. & Batchelder, M., eds.). The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain & Ireland, London.